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Sociology

Sociology is a nascent discipline compared to other sciences. As August Kent, the founder of the field, and other sociologists have pointed out, the emergence of sociology is rooted in the complexity of human societies. The evolution of science and reason in general and the occurrence of scientific revolutions in particular have led to the belief that existence Social issues can also be studied using appropriate methods. The year 1217 AH (1838 AD) coincides with the beginning of official sociology in the West.

But in Afghanistan the situation has been different. Kabul University, as the first and largest higher education center in the country, is less than a century old. In this university, first, the Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences was established within the framework of the Faculty of Literature, and a number of subjects in the field of sociology were gradually added to the curriculum of this department. Since 1980, the Faculty of Social Sciences has started working independently with the Departments of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences and Journalism.

Sociology in Afghanistan

In 1392, the Department of “Philosophy and Social Sciences” was renamed the Department of “Philosophy and Sociology”. The Department of Sociology has been established in Shahid Rabbani University of Education since ….. But it is noteworthy that the teaching of sociology in both universities, including research methods, theories, schools and various fields such as urban sociology, rural sociology, development sociology, family sociology, political sociology And … it is often done by professors with a bachelor’s degree and out of the field. The first professor of sociology with a master’s degree was transferred from the University of Tehran to Kabul University in 2004.

From the same date, until 1390, positive changes took place in this field, which is important to mention two of them: 1- Holding training courses “Research methods for professors of all fields of humanities and students in the first to third ranks of each field in Circumstances in which there was very little knowledge and skill and was effective in establishing the position of sociology at Kabul University; 2- A total of 8 students of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology from one class, with remarkable effort and perseverance to study They turned to sociology.

And they were able to be attracted to the universities of education of Rabbani, Bamyan, Parwan, Kandahar, etc. as members of the scientific staff. Most of the professors in this field are now doing research and teaching at their universities with doctoral and master’s degrees. Currently, sociology departments are officially operating in ten public universities in the country.

In private universities, only Kateb University has created a master’s degree in sociology in 2014. It should be noted that after establishing a master’s degree in philosophy, sociology and history in Kabul University in 1984 and its suspension during the Taliban rule, none of the public universities has ever established master’s and doctoral courses in this field. اند.Thus, it can be argued that official sociology in Afghanistan is more of a 21st century phenomenon.

Beyond Formal Sociology

It is important to note that the formation of sociological methods and insights in modern Afghanistan is related to the distant past beyond its official history. Our emphasis in this case is more on the formation of historical sociology, political sociology and literary-cultural sociology in the works of figures such as Mir Gholam Mohammad Ghobar, Sediq Farhang, Seyyed Askar Mousavi, Asef Ahang and …. Although these figures have not been specifically educated in the context of formal sociology, they have used less of the dominant concepts of conventional sociology in their writings.

But the existence of sociological insight and wisdom can be deduced from the foundation of historical criticism in their works. The works of sociology professors, from Abedin Barez to those who are teaching, are mostly a collection or repetition of works published abroad. These works are teaching resources whose maximum efficiency is responding to the paper games and documenting the current programs of quality improvement of the Ministry of Higher Education and scientific promotions of professors. In other words, they do not have any methodological or epistemological concerns to explain the historical issues of our society now.

. In the words of Seyyed Askar Mousavi in ​​his book on the history of Afghanistan: “No domestic or foreign researcher and writer on the history of Afghanistan has yet been able to write the history of political, social and intellectual developments in Afghanistan. Ghulam Mohammad Ghobar and “Afghanistan in the last five centuries”, written by Mir Mohammad Siddiq, do not learn culture and do not get help …))

Seyed Nooruldin Alawi

Omid Afghan

Khalil